The laryngeal mask was invented by the British anesthesiologist Archie Brain in 1981. It is a ventilation tool between the tracheal tube and the mask. It has simple operation, high placement success rate, less postoperative complications, less stimulation to the airway, and heart. The vascular response is weak, and the advantages of spontaneous breathing to maintain anesthesia can be retained. Currently, it is widely used for airway management of general anesthesia at home and abroad, treatment of acute airway, and intubation of difficult airways.
一、Laryngeal mask type
1. The first generation of laryngeal mask
That is, the standard type laryngeal mask. Clinically, there are mainly LMA-Classic, LMA-Flexible, LMA-Unique and LMA-Ambu AuraOnce.
2. The second generation of laryngeal mask
That is, the tracheal intubation type laryngeal mask is guided. Its main features are good ventilation and guiding tracheal intubation, mainly for unexpected and anticipated difficult tracheal intubation, cervical spine injury, pre-hospital emergency and tracheal intubation in emergency patients.
3. The third generation of laryngeal mask
The esophageal drainage type laryngeal mask is also called a double tube laryngeal mask. The main feature of the esophageal drainage type laryngeal mask is the use of a double tube structure and improved cuff, adding a drainage tube that seals and drains the esophagus.
4. Cuffless laryngeal mask
Made of thermoplastic elastomer, the cover is soft and shaped like a bowl. After being placed, it is closely attached to the throat and surrounding tissue to achieve an effective airway seal without the need for an inflatable balloon, and also has an esophageal drainage tube